Religious Reform Movement in Europe Full Information16th Important Notes

Religious Reform Movement-Introduction

Religious Reform Movement
Religious Reform Movement
  • The religious reform movements in the 16th century can be called an extension of a renaissance in the true sense.
  • At this time feudalism and its economic, social, intellectual, and political beliefs are breaking down. But the influence of religion and the church still remains the same.
  • The rise of trade and commerce, the supremacy of the middle class, and the expansion of knowledge necessitated reformative changes in religion and the church. The religious reform movement was a symbol of this tendency. Many types of evils existed in the medieval church system.
  • In response to these evils, the religious reformation movement started in Europe, and two types of reaction were seen in Europe.
  • The first reaction was to strengthen the Roman Catholic Church system by bringing Roman Catholicism reform, it was named the Reformation.
  • Another type of reaction in the same category was the rejection of the medieval church order which we know as the Protestant movement.

Reformation Causes

  • In the new consciousness that the Renaissance had communicated in the European public mind, it attacked all the beliefs of the Roman Church system which were illogical or unhistorical.
  • In this sequence, the beliefs of Saint Augustine started being accepted against the beliefs of Peter Lombard and Thomas Aquinas. The revival of ancient Greek and Roman literature threw new light on the ideas of St. Augustine.
  • In this way, the philosophical basis for the religious reform movement was prepared. In the 15th and 16th centuries, there were many evils within the church, such as the ignorance and luxury of the clergy, the sale of positions and services of the church, holding more than one position, etc.
  • All these evils were the cause of growing discontent and grievance. Due to commerce trade, when money dominated economy came into existence, the tradition of give and take started on a large scale, due to the Church’s theory of interest, merchants wanted a religion that would support their work.
  • The renaissance led to the emergence of provincial languages and the feeling of influence of nationalism prevailed. For the nationalists of other countries, there was a foreigner located on the road.
  • The sale of pardon letters was the immediate cause of the religious reform movement. In fact, letters of pardon were given during the religious wars to those people who rendered their services for the propagation of Christianity.
  • Later it became commercialized and it was sold openly, it became a major source of income for the church and the clergy. At the same time, the religious reform movement started in protest against the letter.
  • Priests were not allowed to marry in the Catholic sect, but many priests did marry, due to this, the sacred life of the church was becoming immoral.
  • Many such people also reached the church, who were neither interested in spirituality nor had the ability to perform their religious duties.
  • Some rich people used to buy high religious positions.

Progress of Religious Reform Movement in European Countries

  • The fiercest religious war between Germany-based Catholics and Protestants took place in Germany itself. As a reaction to the Protestant movement started in Germany, Catholic countries like Spain and France tried to suppress this movement.
  • But the German state, along with France, established the Small Code and waged war against Charles V, the Emperor of Spain in 1546 AD.
  • After this bloody civil war that lasted for 9 years, peace was finally established between the two sides by the Treaty of Oxburg in 1555 AD.
  • It was formally ended by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1848. There was no definite result of this war in Germany, but on the other hand, it definitely destroyed the prosperity of the German states.
  • Despite the uncertain outcome, the Protestant faith continued to dominate in Germany. National consciousness had risen in Switzerland, here the Protestant sect was becoming popular.
  • On the other hand, business and commercial activities had become intense in many cities here. The simple and natural result of this was that the ambitions of the nascent bourgeoisie started clashing with the orders of the Roman Catholic Church, which is why the Protestant movement became popular here too, which was led by Calvin and Jingali.
  • Due to this movement in Switzerland, pressure was put on Austria to make this country independent. The Protestant movement faced the most opposition in Spain.
  • The Emperor of Spain was a staunch supporter of Catholicism and wanted to retain its power at any cost.
  • His effort is also because It is also noteworthy that in the 16th century, Spain was considered the world’s largest military power. The main reason for the rebellion of the Netherlands against the Spanish ruler was religious.
  • While the Roman Catholic Church had influence in the Northern Netherlands, Calvinism was spreading rapidly in the Southern Netherlands.
  • Britain’s monarchs Henry VIII and Edward VI provided leadership to the Protestant movement. On the instructions of Henry VIII, the Supreme Act was passed in the British Parliament, according to which everyone along with England was declared the supreme authority of the Church of England.
  • The pope was no longer the head of the English Church, the Roman Church was severed, and the monastic property was confiscated. Cranmer was appointed Bishop of Canterbury, who declared Henry VIII’s marriage to Catherine illegal.
  • Henry marries these Anbolin. In fact, he wanted to separate from Rome and maintain an independent Catholic Church of England. In his time the Anglo Church could neither remain completely Catholic nor Protestant.
  • Henry VIII was succeeded by Elizabeth 1603, the daughter of Henry and Catherine. She was an able ruler, she had as much attachment to religion as was necessary for political interests.
  • The popularity of this movement started spreading in France as well, which was known as Yojana in France and it was one-tenth of the total population of France in the French Calvin Valley.
  • The reign of Catherine the Medici (1547-1559) gave the Protestant movement an opportunity to come forward, but its opponents were in the majority.
  • The result was a bloody conflict in which a large number of Protestants were killed in 1572.

The success of the Religious Reform Movement

  • Due to the efforts of Martin Luther Zwingli Calvin, the religious reformation movement started in Europe, and changes were made in the organizations of the church according to the principles of reformation in many countries.
  • Protestantism began to strengthen in most countries of Europe except France and Spain. The kingdoms of England, Scotland, Norway, Sweden, and northern Germany opposed the Pope.
  • The contribution of British ruler Henry VIII in the promotion of the Protestant religion in these countries was remarkable.
  • The first reason for the success of Protestantism was that Luther did not give his support to the peasants when they revolted, so the privileged classes became helpful instead of opposing them and helped them in reforming religion.
  • The second reason for the success of the religious reform movement was that Luther and Calvin raised the feeling of nationalism against the supremacy of the Pope, in their view, foreign interference in the political, social, economic, and religious affairs of any state was inappropriate.
  • The state is paramount in internal matters, such was the belief of these reformers.

Protestant Religious Reform Movement

  • As a result of the religious reform movement, medieval Europe went on to change into modern Europe.
  • This movement started the process which not only freed Europe from medieval beliefs and inertia but also displaced harmony with new economic activities.
  • The religious reformation movements in the 16th century had many consequences. The success of the religious reformation movement and pages of the 16th century made it clear that reform is necessary for the Roman Catholic Church for its stability, hence the Catholic reformation movement from the point of view of its security. Initiated what was called the protestant or protestant religion reform movement.
  • The main objective of the movement was to bring changes in the principles related to the organization and functioning of the church, to explain the principles of religion, and to do the work of propaganda.
  • Historian Shwet also believes that the impetus for reformation in Roman Catholicism was one of the important results of the Revolution.

Result of the Religious Reform Movement

  • There was substantial development of national literature and regional languages in the religious reform movement.
  • Luther translated the Bible into German and Calvin into French, which became very popular.
  • Naturally, this also paved the way for the development of languages like English, French, German, Spanish, etc. He wrote and published many articles and introductions related to religion in his mother tongue.
  • Till now the prestige that Latin had received, people’s languages also started getting. As a result of this, the feeling of devotion towards the mother tongue developed.
  • The marriage did not remain a religious rite and remained just a contract. That thought and immoral relations could have allowed the pond.
  • The reformists paved the way for the development of capitalism by supporting the right over church property and justified the spirit of earning interest.
  • As a result of this movement, more emphasis was given to the concept of humanism and individualism in Europe. With the rise of Protestantism mutual enmity arose between Catholics and Protestants.
  • They mutually wanted to decapitate each other. The period from 1560 to 1630 was a dark time in Dakini Asset history.
  • This practice of finding witches and burning them alive had taken the form of madness. The religious reform movement contributed to the development of the individual’s freedom and identity by establishing a direct relationship with God.
  • Everyone was encouraged to read the Bible and interpret it for themselves. Personality gained more importance due to less influence of religion on the individual.
  • The terrorists rejected most of the religious symbols, idols, pictures, etc., and destroyed them.
  • Due to this, the fine arts were harmed. Religious movements encouraged individualism and freedom of thought by rejecting the middle between man and God and making each man the interpreter of the Bible.
  • The Reformation movement was a result of the expression that was visible in Europe in the form of conflict and upheaval in the late 15th and early 16th centuries.
  • Religion was not a challenge to the basic nature of the reform movement.

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