Mughal Administration Mansabdari System Useful Notes 2022

Mansabdari System

Mughal
  • Jahangir and Shah Jahan continued the administrative system and revenue system established by Akbar with some changes. But important changes were made in the working method of the Mansabdari system.
  • Mansabdars were given an average of ₹ 240 per year per rider for the expenditure of their military contingent under Akbar.
  • During the reign of Jahangir, it was reduced to ₹ 200. The riders were paid according to their nationality and the level of the horse.
  • The Mughals were in favor of mixed troops. There was a system of keeping equal numbers of Iranians, Taranis, Mughals, Indians, Afghans, and Muslims in each troop.
  • Jahangir introduced a system according to which certain chieftains could be allowed to keep more riders without any increase in the caste rank.
  • This system was called Do Aspa and Singh Aspa System. Which literally meant a rider with two or three horses.
  • Generally, no Mansabdar was given a higher rider status than his caste status.
  • During the reign of Shah Jahan, many changes are seen, the purpose of which was to drastically reduce the number of questions required to be put by a chieftain.
  • Thus the chieftain was expected to keep only one-third of his rider status and in some circumstances only one-fourth of the rider.
  • The salaries of the Mansabdars were specified in rupees but they were not normally paid in cash, but instead, they were given jagirs.
  • For the allotment of jagirs, the revenue department had to maintain a ledger, in which the income collected from different areas was recorded. But the account was not shown in rupees but in prices. This document was called deposit-deposit income.
  • Due to the large number of Mansabdars and many other reasons, there was a lot of pressure on the financial resources of the state.
  • By adopting a new method, the number of riders and horses kept by the chieftains according to their rider status was reduced.
  • The Mansabdari system of the Mughals was very complex. His efficient functioning depended on many factors. It also included proper implementation of the Daag system and Jagirdari system.

Mughal Army

  • The cavalry was the main corps of the Mughal army and the Mansabdar used to mobilize more and more cavalry.
  • Apart from the Mansabdars, the Mughal emperor himself also kept a retail cavalry called Ahdi. Those Ahadees are called gentle horsemen and their salaries were higher than other horsemen.
  • He used to be a member of a very reliable army. He was recruited by the emperor himself and there were separate officers to take his attendance.
  • The duties of the Ahadees were multifaceted. Most of the clerks of the royal offices, the painters of the court, and the foremen of the royal factories were elected from this army.
  • Many Ahadees were appointed to the posts of assistants and carriers of royal decrees.
  • Apart from this, many Ahadis worked on the lines of skilled gunsmiths and archers. In addition to the Ahadees, the emperor kept a team of royal bodyguards.
  • Those people were horsemen but used to work on foot in the city fort and the palace.
  • The number of foot soldiers was very large but they were sitting in many parts, many of them were gunmen.
  • These people were the actual infantry, but the foot soldiers included load carriers, servants, guard swordsmen, wrestlers, and slaves.
  • The number of slaves was not as much as it was in the Sultanate period. They used to get food and drink, clothes, and rags, from the people of the emperor or the royal family.
  • Sometimes slaves also attained the rank of Ahdi, the Ahadi were soldiers of prestige. But in general, the status of foot soldiers was low.
  • The Mughal emperor had to have a huge elephant food of the elephants used in the fight as well as well-organized artillery.
  • There were 2 parts of artillery, out of which one part was heavy artillery. The artillery guns were used to defend the fort and to penetrate the enemy’s forts.
  • The second part was light artillery. This artillery could easily be carried anywhere. Whenever the emperor wanted, this artillery used to accompany him.
  • Initially, many Ottomans and Portuguese were placed in the artillery department. The French traveler Bernier (who accompanied the emperor to Lahore and Kashmir), described light artillery as very effective.
  • He says that there were 50 field cannons in it, all made of brass. Each cannon was mounted on a strong and well-colored putty cart, which was pulled by two very strong horses, and a third horse was kept with him to come to work in time.
  • Rahimi was a Mughal ship with a carrying capacity of 1500 tons. Akbar had established Peel Khana Department.

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Post Gupta Age

मुगल प्रशासन