Ruler of the Mughal Empire
- Babur was born on 14 February 1483 in Fargana, a small state in Transoxiana. His full name was Zaheeruddin Mohammad Babar. His father’s name was Umar Sheikh Mirza (Taimur dynasty) and his mother’s name was Qutlugh Nigar Khan (descendant of Genghis Khan).
- He was a contemporary of Krishnadevaraya and Nusrat Shah.
- Babur wrote his autobiography Tuzuk-e-Babri in the Turkish language. In 1494, 14, Babur sat on the throne of a small state called Fargana Salt of Trans-Oxiana.
- Like many other works of Central Asia, In Mughal Empire Babur was also attracted to India after hearing about the fame of its wealth. He had provided strength and made his capital grand, as well as he had merged the students of Punjab into his empire.
- The political situation in North West India was suitable for Babur’s entry into India. Sikandar Lodi died in 1517 AD and Ibrahim Lodi was on the throne of Delhi.
- One of the most unfortunate people among the Afghan Sardars was Daulat Khan Lodi, the Subedar of Punjab. Daulat Khan was the almost independent ruler of Punjab in 1518-19 Babur conquered the powerful fort of Bhera.
- After this, when Babur returned to Kabul, Daulat Khan expelled his representative from Bhera. In 1520-21, Babur once again crossed the Indus and easily conquered Bhera and Sialkot.
- A delegation led by Dilawar Khan, son of Daulat Khan Reached Babar, he had invited Babar to come to India.
Humayun 1530-40, 1555-56 AD (Mughal Empire)
- Humayun was the eldest of the four sons of Babur, Humayun, and Kamran Askari Hindal. After the death of Babur, on 30 December 1530, his son Humayun sat on the throne.
- Humayun gave the jagir of Kabul and Kandahar to Kamran, Sambhal to Askari, and Alwar to Hindal as per his father’s orders. In addition, he gave the jagir of Badakhshan to his cousin Sulaiman Mirza.
- In 1530 AD, Humayun campaigned for Kalinjar whose ruler was Pratap Rudradev. In 1532 he defeated the Afghan army that had conquered Bihar at a place called Daurah and captured Jaunpur in eastern Uttar Pradesh.
- Humayun laid siege to Chunar. This strong fort controlled the land routes in Mughal Empire and river routes between Agra and the east and was known as the gateway to eastern India.
- Sher Khan was the most powerful of the Afghan chieftains at this time. After a siege of 4 months, Humayun agreed to Sher Khan’s offer of compromise, according to which Sher Khan’s authority over the fort of Chunar would be maintained instead he pledged allegiance to the Mughals and gave one of his sons to Humayun as hostage.
- Pass sent | Humayun was worried about the increasing power of Bahadur Shah, the ruler of Gujarat and his activities spread to the area falling on the border of Agra in the Mughal Empire.
- Bahadur Shah was almost the same age as Humayun and was an ambitious ruler. He ascended the throne in 1526. He had conquered Malwa and captured it.
Akbar(1556-1605AD) Mughal Empire
- Akbar was born on 15 October 1542 in the palace of Rana Veersal at Amarkot (in the Thar district of Sindh). Akbar’s mother’s name was Hamida Banu Begum She was the daughter of Humayun’s brother Hindal’s Siya Guru Mir Baba Dost Sheikh Ali Akbar.
- Akbar was in Kalanaur (Punjab) at the time of Humayun’s death. Akbar’s guardian Bairam Khan declared him emperor on 10 February 1556 by making a throne of bricks.
- On February 11, Delhi was informed about Akbar becoming the emperor. At only 13 years and 4 months, Akbar was given the crown of the Mughal dynasty in Kalanaur.
- By making Bairam Khan the vizier of the Mughal emperor, he was given the title of khan-e-khana. Hemu was a Hindu ruler who began his life as a market superintendent under Islam Shah but rose to prominence in the service of Adilshah in the Mughal Empire.
- He had fought 22 wars and he had not faced defeat in any of them. Adil Shah had appointed Hemu as his vizier by giving him the title of Vikramaditya.
- Hemu captured Agra and marched towards Delhi with 50,000 good horsemen, 500 elephants, and a squad. In a fierce battle, Hemu defeated the Mughals near Delhi and captured the city.
Jahangir Mughal Empire
- Jahangir was appointed as the governor of Awadh and Bengal in his youth. After the death of Akbar in 1605, Jahangir became the emperor.
- He was interested in religious and social reforms like Akbar. He himself wrote his Smaran Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri. Jahangir had a good knowledge of painting and was proud of the best painters in his court.
- In 1611, Jahangir married Nur Jahan, who was a beautiful and intelligent woman. Within a few years of her marriage, Noorjahan formed her own group, which was known as the Noorjahan group or the Junta group.
- Noor Jahan, her father Etmaddaulah, her mother Asmat Begum, her brother Asif Khan and Prince Khurram were included in this group. The dominance of this party was established till 1622 AD.
- Due to Jahangir being ill for a long time, Nur Jahan took over his work and administration of the empire. Jahangir used to take his opinion in every important work.
- She became so powerful that her name was written on the coins of the state along with the name of Jahangir. Jahangir is also remembered for his chain of justice.
- He made a long gold chain with bells attached to it and hung it from the wall of the palace. He announced that if someone has been treated unjustly by the government, then he can pull this chain and tell his complaint against the government official.
Shah Jahan Mughal Empire
- Shah Jahan ascended the throne in 1628 after the death of his father. His childhood name was Khurram, he was the son of Jagat Gosai Jodhabai.
- He was married to Arjumanad Banu Begum, the daughter of Nur Jahan’s brother Asif Khan, who became famous as Mumtaz Mahal. Shah Jahan established the city of Shahjahanabad near Delhi and shifted his capital from Agra to Delhi, presently known as Old Delhi.
- In this, he built a security fort which is known as Red Fort or Qila-e-Mubarak. He had got the Deewane Aam Deewane Khas constructed in this fort.
- Takht Taus was a gold throne attached to gems on which Shah Jahan used to sit, in this even a precious diamond named Kohinoor was studded.
- Shah Jahan made his son, Prince Aurangzeb, the governor of the south. After solving the problems of the south, Shah Jahan’s attention was drawn toward the northwest.
- He sent his army to Balkh and Badakhshan in Central Asia to secure the northwest frontier.
Aurangzeb Mughal Empire
- Aurangzeb defeated all his brothers and captured the throne in 1658. Aurangzeb sat on the throne in the name of Alamgir, he ruled for about 50 years, and his reign was full of difficulties.
- After becoming the emperor, Aurangzeb abolished Raah Dari (internal transit fee) and Paandari merchants to redress the economic sufferings of the people.
- He ruled according to the Islamic tradition as per the advice of the Ulema class. He ended the Nowruz festival and Jharokha Darshan started by Akbar.
- He again imposed the Jizya tax in Mughal Empire on the non-Muslim population of the state. Aurangzeb banned Hindu festivals from being made publicly.
- He also banned public dance and music in the state, although in his personal life he himself was an accomplished Veena player.
- During the reign of Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire expanded the most, he used to rule almost the whole of India, and the area around Poona and Konkan is hilly, in this area the Marathas were powerful.
- Aurangzeb was known by the name of Zinda Pir because of his personal character qualities, who were successful in troubling the armies by adopting the guerilla warfare system.
Mughal Empire and its Decline