Swaraj Party PDF (National Movement)
- At the time of the non-cooperation movement, it was decided by Congress to boycott the Legislative Councils. But in this matter, there were two views in Congress.
- A section under the leadership of Chittaranjan Das and Motilal Nehru was of the opinion that Congress should participate in the elections.
- The class led by Vallabhbhai Patel, Dr. Ansari, and Rajendra Prasad was opposed to this proposal. These people wanted Congress to engage in constructive work instead of participating in the elections.
- In 1922, the Congress session was held in Gaya, whose president was Chittaranjan Das. Rejected the proposal not to go to the councils in the convention. Supporters of this proposal, in a special session held in Delhi under the chairmanship of Abdul Kalam Azad in 1923, Congress allowed Swarajya to contest elections. Swarajya won 42 out of 101 seats in the Central and Provincial Councils.
- It made it almost impossible to get the consent of the councils for their policies and proposals presented by the British rulers. The government presented such a bill in the Legislative Council in 1928 AD, under which it could expel any non-Indian who supported India’s freedom struggle.
- But this bill was not passed, the government tried to introduce this bill as Public Safety Bill, then the Chairman of the Legislative Council, Vithal Bhai Patel did not allow the introduction of this bill.
- In the discussions held in the councils, the Indian members often outshone the government and criticized them. Gandhiji was released from prison in February 1924 and promoted a constructive program that was accepted by both factions of Congress.
- It became mandatory for any Congress Committee member to use hand-spun and woven khadi and to spin 2000 yards of yarn per month.
- Gandhiji established the All India Food Organization and Khadi stores were opened across the country. Gandhiji considered Khadi to be free from the poverty of the poor and a means of economic upliftment of the country.
- This contributed to spreading the message of freedom struggle to every part of the country, especially in the rural areas. Charkha became the symbol of the freedom movement.
Movement of farmers and laborers
- Peasants participated in large numbers in the first real mass movement of independence, organizing Kisan Sabhas in different parts of the country and fighting against the oppression of landlords and British officials. Alluri Sitarama Raju led the rebellion of the peasants and tribals of Andhra.
- The Peasant movement had two sides and both were related to the national struggle for freedom. One side was the involvement of the peasants in the freedom struggle while the other side was related to the grievances of the peasants like the Exploitation of farmers by landlords, government, and moneylenders.
- The peasants of Bardoli, located in Gujarat, organized a Satyagraha under the leadership of Vallabhbhai Patel in protest against the 30% tax imposed by the government.
- Later, after the success of the Bardoli Satyagraha, it was reduced to 6.03%, saying that the 30% increase in rent was wrong. After the success of the Bardoli Satyagraha under the leadership of Sardar Patel, the women of Bardoli conferred the title of Sardar to Vallabhbhai Patel.
- Industrial laborers emerged as a new class in Indian society. The Madras Labor Union, established in 1918, was a major labor organization in the early days.
- VP Wadia Sundaram Chakkarai Chettri was its prominent leader. The foremost leader of the trade union movement in India was Narayan Malhar Joshi, who played an essential role in establishing the first All India Trade Union Congress of workers.
- This organization was established in Mumbai in 1920 AD, the president of its first session was Lala Lajpat Rai. Veteran leaders like Chittaranjan Das Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose became the Presidents of the All India Trade Union Congress.
- The leaders of India’s socialist movement played an important role in organizing laborers and farmers. On 11 April 1936, the first All India Kisan Sabha was formed in Lucknow, with Swami Sahajanand Saraswati as its president and NG Ranga as its general secretary.