- At the beginning of the 8th century, a king of the Shail dynasty captured Paundra or northern Bengal.
- Kashmir king Lalitaditya Muktapid and Kannauj king Yashovarman also attacked Bengal.
- King Harsha Dev of Kamrup (Assam) took the opportunity and conquered Bengal. Thus, in the absence of a strong ruling power, Bengal became the center of disorder and anarchy.
- In this sequence of attacks, there was disturbance and disorder all around Bengal.
- Due to this all the chieftains and the public together elected a person named Gopal as their king and he was accepted as the ruler of the whole of Bengal.
- The Pala Empire was established in 750 AD by Gopal, according to Tibetan lama and historian Tara Nath, Gopal had built a Buddhist monastery in Odantapuri.
Dharmapala 770-810 AD
- After Gopal’s death in 770 AD, his son Dharmapala became the king.
- He ruled till 810 AD. The important success of Dharmapala defeated Indrayudha, the ruler of Kannauj, and Chakrayudha had to sit on the throne of Kanauj under his protection.
- In the 11th century, the Gujarati poet Sodal addressed Dharmapala with the title of Uttarapatha Swami.
- Dharmapala was an ardent Buddhist supporter. In his writings, he has been called Paramsaugat.
- He established famous viharas at Vikramshila and Sompuri (Paharpur). The famous Buddhist writer Haribhadra Suri had a place in his Rajya Sabha.
- Dharampal established the famous Vikramshila University in Bhagalpur (Bihar) and got the Nalanda University revived in Bihar.
- He donated the revenue of 200 villages to meet the expenses of Nalanda University.
- Dharmapala had to be defeated by Dhruva, the king of Rashtrakuta, before that Dhruva had also defeated the Pratihara kingdom.
Dev Pal 810-850 AD
- Dev Pal, the son of Dharmapala, became the king in 810 AD after the death of his father.
- He annexed Pragjyotishpur (Assam) and parts of Orissa to his empire and defeated the Pratihara ruler Mihirbhoja.
- Dev Pal had made Munger his capital and assumed the title of supreme gift. He appointed Veer Dev, the famous scholar of Jagarhar (Jalalabad) as the principal of Nalanda Bihar.
- Eastern India was dominated by the Pala rulers for about 100 years from the middle of the eighth century.
- An Arab merchant named Suleiman visited India in the middle of the 9th century. Where is he Ruhma or Dharma (i.e. short form of Dharmapala) to the Pala kingdom?
- The Pala rulers were great patrons of Buddhist knowledge, science, and religion.
- The Pala rulers also had close cultural ties with Tibet.
- Prominent Buddhist scholars like Saint Rachit and Dipankar (known as Aatish) were invited to Tibet and they propagated a new form of Buddhism there.
- The people had trade and cultural ties with Southeast Asia. The empire of the Shailendra dynasty was dominated, by Southeast Asia.
- His empire extended to Malaya, Java, Sumatra, and the surrounding islands.
- Shailendra rulers were Buddhists. He sent many of his messengers to the Pala court and sought permission from the Pala ruler to create a Bihar in Nalanda.
- Pratihara was the most famous dynasty among the Rajputs of Agnikul. In the Gwalior Prashasti, it has been described as a descendant of Lakshman, the younger brother of Rama.
- This dynasty was founded by a king named Harishchandra, but the first real ruler of this dynasty was Nagabhatta I.
- Pratiharas are also called Gurjara Pratiharas. The real founder of the Pratihara kingdom and the greatest ruler of this dynasty was Bhoja.
- The Gurjar caste is first mentioned in the Aihole inscription of Pulakeshin II.
- He rebuilt the Pratihara kingdom and recaptured Kanauj in about 838 AD. The city was the capital of the Pratihara Empire for almost a century.
- Bhoja 836-885 was a devotee of Vishnu and assumed the opposite of Adi Varaha. Some of his coins are inscribed with the word Aadivarah, to differentiate him from Parmar, he is also called Mihirbhoj.
- Al Masoodi, a resident of Baghdad, visited Gujarat in 915-916 AD.
- Where is he Al Jujur to the Gurjara Pratihar state, Al Masoodi tells that in the kingdom of Al Jujur, there were 4 Chamu’a (division) in the army of the king of 18 lakh villages, towns, and rural areas.
- There were 7 to 900000 people in each Chamu. He had only 2000 trained elephants for the war. His cavalry was the best in the country.
- The great Sanskrit poet and playwright lived in the court of Mahipala, the grandson of Rajshekhar Bhoj.
- He called it Raghukul Tilak and Raghukul Brahmini. Between 915 and 918 AD, Rashtrakuta king Indra III attacked Kannauj and destroyed this city.
- In 963 AD, another Rashtrakuta king Krishna III invaded North India and defeated the Pratihara ruler.
- This kingdom was established by Danti Durg, it made Manya Khet or Malkhed it’s capital near modern Solapur.
Govind III 793-814 AD and Amoghavarsha 814-878 AD
- Govind III 793 814 AD and Amoghavarsha 814 878 AD were probably the greatest Rashtrakuta rulers. It is learned from an inscription that Govind III terrified the Kerala Pandey and Chola kings and made the Pallavas powerless.
- Govinda assumed the title of Jayatungaraprabhritavarsha III. Amoghavarsha ruled for 68 years, his interest was more in religion and literature than in war.
- He himself was also a writer and is credited with the creation of Kavi Highway, the first work in the Kannada language on politics.
- Jensen and Sankatyan lived in his court. He composed Amoghavrata.
- The Arab traveler Suleiman came to India during the time of Amogha Varsha.
- After defeating Mahipala in 915 and reducing the prestige of Kanauj, Indra III lived most of his time from 915 AD to 927 AD.
- The Arab traveler Al Masoodi came to India during his reign as the most powerful king.
- The last majestic king of this dynasty was Krishna III in 934 996.
- Krishna III defeated the Chola ruler Parantaka I in 949 AD and occupied the northern part of the Chola Empire.
- He moved south towards Rameswaram and after conquering the surrounding territories, he established a victory pillar there and also built a temple.
- The Rashtrakuta rulers’ rule in the Deccan lasted for about 2 years till the end of the 10th century.
- The famous Shiva temple of Ellora was built by Rashtrakuta king Krishna I in the ninth century.
- The Rashtrakuta kings allowed Muslim traders to settle in their kingdom and at the same time were allowed to propagate Islam.
- In the coastal cities, Muslims had their own mosques for daily prayers.
- The policy of this code helped in foreign trade, which prospered the Rashtrakutas, the great Rashtrakuta rulers were great patrons of art and literature.
- The three jewels of Kannada literature were Pampa, Ponna, and Ranna.
- The patron of the first two scholars was Krishna III.
- There were not only Sanskrit scholars in his court, but there were also many such poets and writers who wrote in Prakrit and Apabhramsa.
- Both these languages were the mother of many modern Indian languages.