Reasons for the success of Mahmud Useful Notes for UPSC 2023

Mahmud had unexpected success in his Indian invasions, the following reasons can be given for this relentless success of Mahmud-

Mahmud

the pathetic political situation of India

  • The political condition of India at the time of Mahmud’s invasion was very pathetic.
  • Political differences among the Indian rulers were animosity and mutual schism.
  • There was a lack of unity and organization in them.
  • The Indian rulers failed to organize and defeat the enemy army at the time of Mahmud’s invasions.

Mahmud’s Higher Military Organization

  • Mahmud’s army was more organized than the Indian soldiers. Equestrians had predominance in the army.
  • His soldiers were equipped with new weapons and they used to attack the enemy army at a fast pace.
  • The second Mahmud was a relatively skilled fighter and a valiant warrior, in that he could organize the army properly and fight well Had a special talent to operate.
  • He was always on the lookout to take advantage of the weakness of the enemy.
  • Third, his strategy and tactics were also commendable. He used to select and separate some of the best soldiers in each battle, which were used for the final strike.
  • As a result, many times he converted his defeat into victory.
  • Fourth, at the time of the fierce battle, he used a strategy according to which his army was divided into different classes and units and attacked the enemy in turn.
  • On the other hand, Hindu soldiers fighting continuously fighting became tired and impatient.
  • Fifthly, He wanted to boost the morale of his army through his bold actions and eloquent speeches when needed.
  • He did not lose his patience and courage even in the face of adversity and crisis.
  • He raised the slogan of Jihad against the Hindu rulers and prayed to Allah with a sincere heart for strength and victory.

Patriotism and lack of nationalism among Indians

  • At that time, neither in the general public nor the rulers nowadays, there was only political awareness and conscious patriotism.
  • Instead of working for the protection of the nation, some people did work anti-national and revealed secret secrets by meeting the enemy.
  • Due to the mutual quarrels of the priests of Somnath, one of them gave the enemy the secret of the fort and the temple and possibly even invited him to attack Somnath.
  • It was better to flee than to fight with the Gand leader Mahmud, the King Jaipal of Kannauj, and the Chandela king of Kalinjar.
  • Bhimdev of Anhilwara did not dare to face Mahmud.
  • Some rulers and kings opposed Mahmud, but when they came to know about his real power, they graciously made a treaty with him and promised to pay annual taxes.
  • It is clear from this that the reason for the success of Mahmud in the war was not the weakness of the Indian soldiers but the ignorance and weakness of the rulers.

Religious Fervor

  • Mahmud and his soldiers had indomitable religious fervor and renewed vigor. We’re ready to make every sacrifice in the name of Islam.
  • With this new vigor of religion and for the victory of Mahmud, he used to get ready to do everything.
  • Selfishness and gluttony Mahmud’s soldiers had a firm belief that their war was a religious war and that they were fighting and sacrificing themselves for the cause of God.
  • There was no such inspiring provocation among the Hindus, but they had mutual animosity and jealousy due to different sects and differences of opinion.

Mahmud’s personality and qualities

  • Mahmud’s unique personality and his various qualities and talents place him in the first category of great conquerors and army heroes.
  • He had the qualities of courage, valor, valor, fearlessness, self-confidence, faith in God, a skilled commander, the ability to test man, study the enemy’s position and weaknesses, change his strategy accordingly and gain reverence, Whose coordinator had facilitated his political success in India.

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