Introduction of Indian Nationalism
- Even after suppressing the rebellion of eighteen hundred fifty-seven, there were revolts against the economic and administrative policies of the British rule in different parts of the country for many years.
- Political and national consciousness began to emerge in the public, due to which a different type of movement was born, which soon took the form of a nationwide struggle for independence.
- The British ruled India through their political control to fulfill their economic interests. There was no resemblance between the interests of the Indian people and the objectives of the British to rule India.
- There were also some sections among Indians who helped the British to strengthen their rule.
- Barring a few sections, the changes that took place in the socio-economic and political life during the British rule over the rest of India inspired the people to unite and agitate against British rule.
- These changes were the result of the policies adopted by the British for their own interests.
- As a result of these, the people united against British rule, the British rule created the conditions for its own destruction through its imperialist and exploitative actions.
Political and Administrative unity
- Under British rule, almost the entire country was integrated as a political unit.
- During British rule, there were many such areas in India where Indian rulers ruled. He was dependent on the grace of the former British rule and was free in name only.
- He could not establish relations with other countries. The responsibility of protecting them from other countries was in the hands of complete British rule.
- The people of these states were considered British subjects because some of these states were created by the British themselves.
- The political unity of India was an important achievement, although it was achieved under foreign rule and for their benefit.
- This unity was strengthened by a group system of administration established in the British territories.
- Laws were made uniformly and applied equally to everyone, at least in principle. Equality before the law became a part of unity.
- The Uniform system of administration and uniform law in the whole country has increased the feeling of equality and unity among the people residing in different parts of the country.
- Various economic changes such as maintaining their suzerainty over trade, promotion of commercial crops, etc. were forcefully imposed on the people by the British, due to which the people had to face a lot of difficulties.
- But the increase in regional connectivity with the construction of railways and roads made people make a significant contribution to uniting and instilling in them common aspirations.
Establishment of modern industries in India
- India became a market for British producers and a source of raw materials for British industries. Due to the policy made by the British government, the development of industries in India was very slow.
- Modern trade and industry are strong forces of integration, which bring different parts of the country closer to each other. The people working in industries belong to different regions of the country, different castes, and sects.
- Therefore, such situations arise that, caste, communal and regional elements begin to end them. A sense of brotherhood is created among the people working in the factories. With this, they unite and agitate for special demands.
- As a result, the urban areas become centers of a political movement. For all these reasons the development of industries played an important role in binding the people as a nation.
- Helped to fill national consciousness in the development of modern industries that started in India in the late 19th century.
- The development of industries led to the emergence of two important classes in society, the capitalist class, and the industrial working class.
- For more development of these two classes, it was necessary to industrialize the country.
- British rule was an obstacle to the industrial development of India, so it was also opposed to both these classes.
- Each of these classes also had its own public interest. For example, the owners of cotton textile factories all over the country were equally affected by the economic policies of the British and their problems and objectives were also similar.
Impact of Modern Education
- The spread of modern education played an important role of Indian Nationalism in raising the national consciousness.
- English education was started by the British because the reasons and objectives were limited.
- The British rulers thought that Indians who got an education in English medium would become supporters of their rule but the king’s English education was welcomed by Indian leaders like Ram Mohan Roy, he thought that through English education, the people of India would be exposed to the advanced knowledge of the world.
- It would enable Indians to know the literature of European languages and events in other parts of the world. Many revolutionary changes took place in the West in the 18th and 19th centuries.
- The great thinkers of the West wrote books in support of democracy, equality, and nationalism. Said that the real rulers of any country are the people there and people have the right to overthrow such a government according to their aspirations. does not work and harasses them.
- Education opened the doors of modern knowledge for Indians, due to which nationalist and democratic ideas started to flourish, and revolutionary and nationalist movements of other countries became a source of inspiration for them.
- Educated Indians from all over the country began to have a common vision about the country’s problems.
Establishment of Political Institutions
- Around the middle of the 19th century, political gatherings of Indians began to be established, they were established in presidency cities like Kolkata, Mumbai, and Madras, and in these institutions, the demand was raised to make Indians a partner in the administration of the country.
- The Bombay Association was established in 1852 AD for the welfare of the Indian public and for sending applications to the British authorities in India and Britain.
- The Madras Native Association was established in 1852 for the same purpose.
- In the 1870s and 1880s, due to some incidents, the discontent against British rule increased and the government took repressive measures against the efforts of the Indians to meet their demands.