- In the Slave dynasty, The defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan in the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192 by Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori inaugurated an era of Muslim rule in India.
- The sudden death of Muhammad Ghori in 1206 And his failure to specify succession procedures pitted his three slaves Tajuddin Yalduz, Naseeruddin Qubacha, and Qutubuddin Aibak against each other.
- The internal dissension and strife led many Ghurid possession in India to Revolt and proclaim Independence.
- Meanwhile, Qutub Uddin Aibak succeeded both in capturing the Throne of Delhi and to retain Indian territories.
- The period between 1206 and 1526 in Indian history is known as the ‘Period of Sultan rulers’ during his period rulers belonged to five different dynasties is the Slaves, the Khilji’s the Tughlaqs, the Sayyids, and the Lodis ruled over India.
The Slave Dynasty (1206-1290 A.D.)
- All the Muslim rulers that ascended the Throne of Delhi after the death of Muhammad Ghori in 1206 till 1290 were either themselves Slaves are the descendants of these slave rulers.
- That is why the rulers belonging to this dynasty are generally known as the ‘Slave Rulers’ or the ‘Mamluk Sultan’ and the dynasty is called the ‘Slave Dynasty.
- Muhammad Ghori had left the Indian possessions in the care of his former slave Qutub Uddin Aibak who on the death of his master severed his links with Gajni and asserted his independence.
Qutub-Ud-Din Aibak (1206-1210 AD)
- Qutubuddin Aibak had played a vital role under his Chief in extending the authority of the Ghoris.
- Qutub’s achievements as monarch were however a mere shadow of his achievements as Viceroy.
- Within the brief span of four years, he was destined to reign, and life his work was naturally concerned with the retention of what he had acquired rather than with expansion.
- His devotion to Islam is attested by two mosques built by him in Delhi and Ajmer.
- The fact that Aibak could not sufficiently consolidate his position is Borne out by the fact that his nominee and adopted son.
- Aram Shah was driven out from The throne by the Turkish nobles of Delhi who replaced Aaram with their own nominee Shamsuddin Iltutmish.
- In 1210 Aibak died from the effects of a fall from his horse while playing polo.
Iltutmish (1210-1236 AD)
- Iltutmish was is the son-in-law of Aibak. He rendered great service to the Islamic empire in India.
- He secured a letter of investiture from the caliph of Baghdad in 1229 which bestowed him the title of Sultan of Hindustan.
- He not only suppressed the rebellious chief and nobles but also his powerful rivals like Yaldoz and Qubacha and the Khiljis of Bengal to protect the Muslim empire in India from various challenges.
- He destroyed the power of Rajput Princes and brought the whole of North India under his control. Instead of Lahore, he made Delhi the capital and center of the Muslim Empire.
- Iltutmish organized the Iqtas (administrative units) the army and the currency the Iqta was the grant of revenue from the territory in lieu of salary. The largest Iqtas carried administrative responsibilities.
- The iqta system was linked the farthest part of the Empire to the center Iltutmish introduced the Silver Tanka and the copper Jital the two basic coins of the Sultanate Period with a standard weight of 175 grains.
Raziya Sultan (1236-1239 AD)
- Razia the daughter of Iltutmish assumed the reigns of the government in 1236 . She was the first and the last woman among the Muslim rulers who Sat On The Throne of Delhi.
- However, the Pathan nobles regarded it as their dignity to pay a bad idea to a woman. On the other hand, the traditional Muslims resented her public appearances without covering her face with a burkha or a veil.
- Also, the appointment of an Abyssinian slave named Jamaat-Ud-Din as superintendent of the stable was resented by Chahalgani Turks or Chalisa, a group of nobles.
- Raziya was murdered near Kaithal in 1240. She was succeeded by several of her kins till 1266 when Balbal emerged as a powerful Sultan.
- Though Balban formally become the ruler in 1266 the period 1246-1287 is known in history as the age of Balban due to the dominant role he played in Delhi at the time.
Balban (1266-1285 AD)
- Ghiyasuddin Balban ascended The Throne in February 1266. He first executed the survivors of the Chalisa and relieved himself of the dangers of rivalry.
- He suppressed with an iron hand the Hillman whose forays were a terror in the suburb of Delhi. He cleared the forests around Delhi and at a sacrifice of a hundred thousand men turned a Haunt of bush Rangers into a peaceable agricultural district.
- He freed the road from brigands by killing and burning without Mercy. He built forts and established Afghan Garrison to Guard communications with Bengal.
- The titles of Turkes Khan for vast estates were strictly examined and he took back the lands from which no adequate Military Service was received and thus reducing the power of nobles.
- He maintained pomp and dignity at his court. He ensured security with an efficient system and severely punished spies for their defaults.
- Balban died in 1286 after nominating Kai Khusro the sun of Muhammad as his successor.
- The nobles however raised his grandson Kaikubad the 17-year-old son of Bughra Khan To The Throne. Kaikubad give rein to pleasure and the guidance of the government was entrusted to his Vazir.
- During his short reign of three years, Kaikubad became a hopeless paralytic.