In Ancient History, the Kalachuris dynasty was a very important topic for government exams.
Early History of the Kalachuris Dynasty
- The Kalachuris Dynasty also known as the Haihayas, has been referred to in the epics And The Puranas.
- When they became associated with the Chedi country, they were also known as the Chedis.
- Their earliest seat of power was possibly at Mahishmati on the Narmada.
- In the second half of the sixth century A.D., the Kalachuris Emerged as political power, and their Kingdom comprised Gujarat, Northern Maharashtra, and even parts of Malwa.
- 3 kalachuri Kings Krishnaraja his son Shankaragana and the latter’s Son Buddharaja were known to have ruled between 550- and 620.
- They had to contend with two powerful neighbors- the Maitraka of Alabhi and the Chalukyas of Badami.
- But the Kalachuris continue to exist as a family of some importance in Eastern Malwa and the neighboring region and established matrimonial relations with eastern and western Chalukya princes.
Kalachuris Dynasty of Tripuri
- In the 8th century, several branches of the Kalachuris Dynasty were settled in different parts of Northern India.
- One of them founded a principality in Sarayupara in the modern Gorakhpur district and the other was the most powerful ruler in the Chedi country in Bundelkhand.
- The Kalachuris of Chedi also known as kings of the ‘Dahalamandal’ had their capital at Tripuri near Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh.
- With the accession of Kokalla in or about 845 A.D., the real history of the Kalachuris dynasty of Tripuri may be said to have begun.
- Kolla-I is credited with victories over many powerful Kings he came into conflict with the Pratihara king Bhoja-I and gained a resounding victory over him.
- He is said to have plundered Vanga or East Bengal vanquished the Rashtrakuta king Krishna-II who was his son-in-law and invaded Northern Konkan.
- Thereafter the Kalachuris entered into a series of matrimonial Alliance with the Rashtrakutas still the time of Krishna-III and the two families maintained table relations
Sankaragana-I of the Kalachuris dynasty
- Kokalla-I married the Chandela princess Nattadevi and had 18 sons.
- The eldest son Shankargaana succeeded his father and defeated the Somavamsi king of Kosala.
- He was succeeded by his son Balharsha whose reign was very brief.
- Notwithstanding the close relationship between the Kalachuris dynasty and the Rashtrakutas, the latter under Krishna-III invaded the kingdom of Yuvaraja-I.
- Latter Yuvaraja succeeded in driving the Rashtrakuta from his Kingdom.
- This was a significant achievement in commemoration of which the famous poet Rajasekhara, who now lived in the kalachuri court stage the famous drama Viddhasalabhanjika at the court of Yuvaraja.
- Yuvaraja-I was a Saiva and helped the Saiva ecstatic in preaching their Doctrine in his Kingdom.
Lakshmanaraja and Sankaragana-II
- Yuvaraja-I was succeeded by his son Lakshmanraja who won a victory over Mularaja-I the founder of Chalukyas or Solanki.
- Like his father, Lakshmanraja patronized Saivism.
- Lakshmanraja was succeeded by his son Shankargana-II who was a Vaishnav.
- He was succeeded by his brother Yuvaraja.
- The Kingdom suffered serious reverses during its rule.
- His maternal uncle Chalukya Taila-II attacked his Kingdom.
- Hardly he had recovered from his shock when he was overwhelmed by the Paramara king Munja.
- After the withdrawal of the Paramaras, the minister of Shankarajana-II placed his son Kokall-II on The Throne.
- Under Kokalla-II the Kalachuris recovered their power.
- He was succeeded by his son Gangeyadeva.
Gangeyadeva of the Kalachuris Dynasty
- During his reign, the Kalachuris dynasty becomes the greatest political power in India.
- The most important factor contributing to his success was that the Kalachuri remained unaffected by the marauding raids of Sultan Mahmud.
- He carried his arms to Orissa as far as the seacoast.
- He commemorated this great victory by assuming the power title of the ‘Trikalingadhipati’ or ‘Lord of Trikalinga’.
- He sent an expedition under his son Karna against Anga and Magadha which were under the Pala King Nayapala .
- According to Tibetan tradition, Atisha Dipankara who at that time had been residing in Magadha took the initiative in inducing Karna and Nayapala to conclude a Treaty on the basis of mutual restitution of conferred territories.
- Gangeyadeva was succeeded by his son Lakshmikarna better known as Karna.
- He was one of the greatest generals of his time.
- He wrested Allahabad from the Pratiharas.
- Karna defeated the Chandela, Krittivarman, and occupied Bundelkhand but a feudatory of the Chandellas freed the country from the Kalachuris.
- Far more important was Karna’s invasion of the Paramara kingdom of Malwa in Alliance with Bhima-I the Chalukya king of Gujarat.
- During the war, the Paramara King Bhoja died and the two allies got possession of Malwa.
- Subsequently, a quarrel broke out between Karna and Bhima on the question of the division of the spoil.
- Despite the numerous wars fought with many powers throughout the greater part of his life, the result achieved by Karna was too insignificant.
- Allahabad was the only addition to his paternal kingdom.
- The series of reverses that Karna suffered particularly at the end of his reign diminished earlier glory and loosened his hold over his feudatories.
- Karna abdicated The Throne in favor of his son Yashkarna.
- A series of inversions overwhelmed him.
- The Chalukya Vikramaditya-VI raided his Kingdom; Chandradeva of the Gahadwala dynasty wrested Allahabad and Banaras; the Chandela defeated him and Paramara Lakshmandeva plundered his capital.
- Vijaysimha was the last Kalachuri king of any importance.
- Trailokyaverman defeated him and convert the whole of the Dahalamandala.