2 Nature and Scope of Psychology-
2.1 1-Academic Areas
2.2 3-Area of applied psychology
What is Psychology?
- Psychology is a science that studies the behavior and mental processes of an animal.
- In other words, it can be said that psychology is a science that studies the observable behavior in a systematic manner and the mental and physical processes within the animal-like Contemplation, studies, emotion, etc.,
- And its relation with the events of the environment. In this context, psychology is called the science of study of behavior and mental process.
- Behavior includes both human behavior and animal behavior and the study of other types of sensations.
Nature and Scope of Psychology-
- An easy way to learn about the field or field of psychology is to focus on the problems in which modern psychologists show more interest and are studying specifically.
- Psychologists can be divided into three categories depending on the work done. Those psychologists are kept in the first category who are engaged in teaching work.
- In the second category, those psychologists are kept who do research on psychological problems.
- And in the third category, those psychologists are kept who are based on the facts obtained from psychological studies.
- But we use skills and techniques in real situations, in this way, there are three main work areas of psychologists, teaching, research, and application.
- The main facts related to these three work areas are described below-
- Teaching and research is a major work area of psychology, from this point of view psychologists show their interest in the following branches under this field-
1-Life span developmental psychology
- Child psychology was initially concerned only with the study of child development, but in recent years, emphasis has also been laid on the study of adolescence, adulthood, and old age in developmental psychology.
- That is why it is called life span developmental psychology such as intelligence, muscle development, social development, games, study, and language development from a developmental perspective .
2-Human experimental psychology
- Human experimental psychology is a field of psychology where all the behavior of human beings is studied on which it is possible to do experiments.
- Let’s try which can be isolated and whose process of study is simple, in this way, there has been a lot of experimental study of behaviors like sight, hearing, learning thinking, etc.
3-Animal experimental psychology
- This field of psychology is similar to human experimental psychology.
- The only difference is that experiments are done on animals like rats, cats, dogs, monkeys, orangutans, etc.
- Most of the research in animal experimental psychology has been done in the study of biological aspects of learning and behavior.
- In psychology, an attempt is made to understand the similar behavior of human beings by studying the behavior of animals like learning, contemplation, remembrance, etc.
- The field of work of somatics in daily psychology is the study of the somatic determinants of animal behavior and their effects.
- This type of somatic psychology is a branch of psychology that is closely related to biological science. It is also called psychobiology.
- The main objective of this psychology is to develop mathematical statistics and quantitative methods to understand and study human behavior.
- The most intimate relationship is between the learning of sensory psychology and the process of decision-making.
- Personality psychology is concerned with the study of differences between individuals and individuals.
- Personality psychology is more interested in studying the motivational aspect of behavior.
- In this type of psychology, both normal and deviant personalities are studied in this field.
- In psychology, most of the time is used in classifying individuals on the basis of their three qualities and also in finding out those dimensions or dimensions on the basis of which similarity or difference of one person can be established from another person.
- Social psychology studies man as a social animal.
- Social animals interact with each other and live as a family or society.
- The field of social psychology is closely related to the field of sociology, which is why many sociologists also consider themselves Social psychologists and feel proud to come.
- In cognitive psychology, the importance of studying mental processes such as perception, thinking, learning, intelligence, memory, etc., is the response.
- In psychology, you are of the opinion that to each stimulus, a person responds only after making some decisions.
- Abnormal psychology is such a field of psychologists in which they study the types of symptoms due to adjusted behavior or abnormal behavior.
- Studying and studying in detail the biological background, psychological background, and socio-cultural background of the individual to understand the causes of origin.
- So it is a difficult and complicated task in front of anthropologists interested in psychology because the above Analysis of factors is certainly an extraordinary task in itself.
- The field of educational psychology is an important area in which the activity of psychology has been found more.
- Educational psychology studies the psychological aspects of the educational process, educational performance is affected by personality, individual variation, personality factors, social interaction, etc.
- Let us do some special work in our research work like- teacher-student interaction and the effect of learning and student morale can also be studied.
3-Area of applied psychology
- There is some area of psychology in which psychologists use their skills and research in solving groups of individuals and psychological problems so that those problems can be solved and individuals can be guided properly, such a field is called applied psychology.
- Under this, psychologists are working in the following branches-
- Clinical psychology is the most popular and widely used branch of psychology, 43% of the total number of psychologists are clinical psychologists only.
- Clinical psychology is active in many such fields, but mainly three tasks are done by them, research, diagnosis, and treatment, these people treat mental diseases.
- Clinical psychology e treats mental diseases. Time therapy does not use the organic method whereas psychotherapists use these methods openly.
- Community psychology is a field of psychology that uses psychological rules, ideas, and facts to solve social problems and help the individual to make adjustments to his work and group.
- In other words, community psychology is related to psychotherapy and psychotherapy. Rather, it is due to the environmental situation in which the behavior is triggered or may arise.
- Community psychologists believe more in solving the problem by bringing changes in the environment, such as changes in the organization and administration of the school, adolescents, and children of the society as a whole.
- In fact, community psychologists are considered a special part of the community mental health movement.
- The work area of counseling psychology is very similar to that of clinical psychology, the only difference is that counseling psychology tries to solve the simple statutory and personal problems of the individual, whereas in clinical psychology it is difficult to overcome some complex and difficult problems.
- In other words, it can be said that counseling psychology helps ordinary people to strengthen their adjustment ability.
- The work of a school psychologist is very similar to that of community mental health workers and counseling psychologists.
- School psychologists mainly work in primary and secondary schools and they refer students to other specialists for special treatment.
- Work and provide an important service by organizing counseling and training programs that help the teacher organize themselves with students and other teachers and find solutions to questions related to the administration of the school.
5-Industrial and Organizational Psychology
- Industry and another such field in which psychology rules and principles are used.
- In industrial psychology, the psychological problems of the employees working in the industry are studied and efforts are made to find adequate solutions and yogic psychology is related to the employees and workers.
- Division personnel selection, job evaluation, work, attitude, work, physical environment, etc.
- There is also a special area of industrial psychology in which special coordination between the design of employees and machines is given, in this the field is called engineering psychology or human engineering.
- It is also said that about 4 percent of the total number of psychologists are working in the field of industrial psychology.
- In this psychology, psychological rules and principles are used in other areas. The principles and facts of psychology were used for the first time in the American military forces.
- After the Second World War in India, psychology is being used in the Indian military forces. And for this, the Government of India has given Defense A special institution that has also been opened under the ministry, which has been named as Psychological Institute of Defense Research.
- The main work area of psychologists in this field is spread over the following 5 types of activities-
- selection of defense personnel at different levels,
- organizing special programs
- To develop leadership qualities in such personnel Developing special training programs
- To develop security skills
- To study the problems of soldiers related to problems arising out of anxiety and stress etc.
3-New Emerging Areas of Psychology
- Psychology is constantly developing and new features are entering the field of psychology,
- some new branches of psychology are emerging, and the following are the main ones-
- In this branch of psychology, the effect of the environment and its behavior is studied.
- Various aspects of the environment like school, house, noise pollution, weather, crowd, etc. have a clear effect on behavior.
- These effects are studied in environmental psychology.
- The field of psychology deals with the study of factors affecting health, especially physical health.
- In other words, health psychology focuses on the relationship between health and the factors affecting them, especially stress, anxiety, etc., heart disease. It is studied what is the role or can be in the origin of cancer etc.
- In this branch of psychology, psychologists study those human behaviors which are related to violations of social rules and laws.
- Efforts are made, this psychology is very much related to the environment of the prison and the environment of the judicial old, etc.
- The relationship between psychology and law is old. In judicial psychology, the relationship between these two is studied psychologically.
- The role of psychological diagnosis is important in determining whether a person can be prosecuted. Psychologists within the prison as a doctor etc.
- Psychologists are often hired by police departments in the hope that they will help them better understand complex human and motivational systems.
- At the other end of the legal system, it has also been observed that psychological research is sometimes used – Sometimes complex judicial decision-making is done successfully.
- Sports psychology is a branch of psychology that studies not only the behavior and feelings of male players and female players but also the reactions of coaches, referees, clubs and sports associations, managers, and audiences.
- Sports psychologists study only the past and present performances of individuals.
- Do not study but also study the past and present interactions between the stripes lying about the events and circumstances of the sport.
- Political psychology is the secretary recruitment branch of psychology in which psychologists basically study how to govern people.
- This fact was supported by the book Political Psychology and Social Defense in France by G. Lee Bon which was published in 1910 I H.D.Laswell in America is considered the father of political psychology after the publication of his book Psychopathology and Politics; goes .
- The term economic psychology was first used in 1901 because it was the name of the course that Tarde taught at the University of Paris.
- Economic psychology is the branch of psychology that studies how individuals are affected by the economy.
- And what psychological reactions are involved in their economic behavior when they make decisions about achieving the best things in life.
- Economic psychologists study their subject matter i.e. economic behavior by using experimental design. These psychologists use questionnaire surveys, behavior ratings, and semantic discriminant scales to collect outcome threat data.