Very Important Notes about Mahmud Ghazni 998-1030

Early life of Mahmud Ghazni

Mahmud Ghazni
  • Mahmud Ghazni was born in 1971 AD, Mahmud Ghazni’s mother was the daughter of a chieftain of Zabulistan.
  • Mahmud married a woman named Kausari Jahan, and they had twin sons.
  • His sister, Sitr-e-Mu’alla, was married to Dawood bin Ataullah Alavi, also known as Ghazi Salar Shahu.
  • Mahmud Ghazni was capable and brave like his father, he was given the best Islamic education in his childhood.
  • From his childhood, Mahmud Ghazni developed heroic qualities and was war-loving.
  • Fulfilled all his hopes by fulfilling his father’s dreams of expansion and religious propagation.
  • In his teens, he actively supported his father in the war against Hirat, Khorasan, Nishapur, etc., and against Jaipal of Punjab.
  • Mahmud Ghazni was very proficient in art and royal skills, during his father’s reign, he was the provincial ruler of Khorasan.
  • After the death of Subuktagin, the nobles of Mahmud Ghazni placed his younger brother Ismail on the throne, but soon Mahmud defeated Ismail in battle and ascended the throne. got his right.
  • Following the defeat of the Indian Confederacy, after deciding to retaliate for their combined resistance, Mahmud then set out on regular expeditions against them, leaving the conquered kingdoms in the hands of Hindu Vassals and annexing only the regions of Punjab.
  • In 1001 Mahmud Ghazni first invaded modern-day Pakistan and then parts of India. Mahmud defeated, captured, and later released the ruler, who had moved his capital to  (modern Pakistan).
  • In 1005 Mahmud of Ghazni invaded Bhatia (probably Bhera), and in 1006 he invaded Multan,  at which time Anandapala’s army attacked him.
  • The following year Mahmud of Ghazni attacked and crushed Sukhapala, ruler (who had become ruler by rebelling against the Shahi kingdom).
  • Mahmud again attempted to invade Kashmir but was again not able to advance beyond the Loharkot fort. After the two failed invasion attempts, he did not attempt to invade Kashmir again.

Mahmud’s accession

  • One year after Subuktagin’s death, after success in the civil war, in 998 AD, Mahmud Ghazni ascended the throne with great pride, at the time of Mahmud Ghazni’s ascension, he was 27 years old, at that time Mahmud Ghazni kingdom included Afghanistan and Khorasan.

Mahmud’s Early Campaigns

  • Mahmud Ghazni was a very talented and ambitious young man. Mahmud Ghazni wanted to transform his small kingdom into a huge and powerful empire.
  • Taking advantage of the civil war of the Samani dynasty of Central Asia, Mahmud Ghazni took Khorasan by force from the Samani Sultan.
  • In this way, he got the right over half of the state of Bukhara.
  • Now he became the independent ruler of Ghazni and assumed the title of Sultan. Al-Qadir Billah, the Caliph of Baghdad, recognized his position and Mahmud Ghazni bestowed him with the titles of Yameen-ud-Daulah and Yameen-ul-Millah.
  • Mahmud, on the strength of his powerful army, fighting skills, and successful leadership, took over his neighboring states by force, thus Mahmud Ghazni defeated them in Khorasan 1002 in 999 AD, Sistan in 1012 AD, Khwarizya in 1017 AD, and then Gaur in 1019 AD.
  • Emboldened by these initial successes in his empire, Mahmud turned his attention to India, saying that in order to please the Caliph, Mahmud Ghazni promised that he would conduct a crusade every year against the pagan Hindus of India.
  • Mahmud Ghazni attacked Fatah Daud of Multan in 1004, Anandapala of the Hindushahi dynasty in 1008 AD, attacked Nagarkot (Kangra) in 1009 AD, and looted it.
  • After this, Mahmud Ghazni invaded Kashmir in 1015 AD when Mahmud Ghazni was defeated by Rani Dida, the ruler of the Lohar dynasty.
  • Mahmud Ghazni attacked India 17 times which has been a famous invasion throughout history.

Objectives of Mahmud’s Indian invasion

economic objective

  • Mahmud Ghazni attacked India 17 times from 1020 to 1027 and looted different areas of the country. What was his motive behind these attacks?
  • There are deep differences among scholars regarding this question, in fact, he attacked India for many purposes and purposes, and we will mention them here briefly.
  • Scholars like Professor Habib, Dr. Mohammad Nazim, and Dr. SM Jafar, the main purpose of Mahmud’s attack, tell the people of loot, to hide this purpose, he only took the cover of religion.
  • Mr. Hable says that if there was a possibility of getting so much money in Baghdad as it was in Somnath, then Mahmud plundered it so mercilessly, Utbi has tried to cover this wealth of his patron with a grand veil of religious fervor.
  • B. A. Smith and Dr. Ishwari Prasad and Professor S. R. Sharma are also of the opinion that their main objective was to loot the wealth deprived for centuries in India.

religious purpose

  • Many historians are of the opinion that the purpose of Mahmud’s invasions was also to propagate Islam in India.
  • His court writer Utbi has written that his invasion of India was in the form of jihad and his aim was to spread Islam by ending idol worship in India, so Mahmud broke the idols and looted the temples.
  • He assured the Caliph to do so was also given According to the opinion of some Muslim writers, Mahmud not only propagated Islam but also enhanced its glory. will feel proud.
  • Doctor Jim has also accepted Mahmud as a missionary, he believes that the destruction of the temple of Somnath was a miraculous victory of Islam over idol worship and Mahmud was praised throughout the Muslim world as a protector of religion.
  • Some modern Muslim historians are not ready to believe that the purpose of Mahmud’s invasions was religious, they say that Mahmud did not attack India in the sense of propagating Islam, but it is proved from the article of the North that Mahmud invaded India, the country of the infidels had invaded to propagate Islam religion.
  • Alberuni, who was a contemporary of Mahmud, also accepts that Mahmud was a staunch Sunni Muslim, so it is no wonder that the spread of Islam has been the object of his Indian invasions.

political objective

  • Some historians have the concept that Mahmud also wanted to establish a Muslim state in India, for this purpose he won Punjab.
  • Gibbon CB Vaidya and Doctor Nazim also consider him a successful ruler, but there is some such evidence on the basis of which it can be easily said that establishing an empire in India was not the goal of Mahmud.
  • He included Punjab in his empire so that he could easily attack India repeatedly by making Punjab the center of his activities.
  • Mahmud invaded and conquered other areas of North India, but he did not control any area except Punjab, if he wanted to establish his empire in India, he would never do so.
  • Mahmud understood very well that India is a huge country, and it is impossible to rule it from a remote city like Ghazni, yet his own empire was very wide.
  • With the annexation of India, its expansion would have increased and it was impossible for one person to keep such a vast empire safe and secure.
  • The hot and humid climate of India was not favorable to Mahmud’s supporters living in the cold region. It could have been easy to plunder the Indian states, but it was very difficult to establish a permanent rule by conquering them.
  • Mahmud did not want to take such incidents.

See also….

The Khiljis